At the end of the American Civil War, most southerners eventually gave up their cause and adapted to life in the reconstituted United States. Most, but not all.
- “A Slice of the Confederacy in the Interior of Brazil” from the New York Times
- “The Brazilian Town Where the American Confederacy Lives On” from VICE
- “How Did Thousands of Former Confederates End up in Brazil?” from History.com
- “The Lost Cause: The Confederate Exodus to Mexico” by Andrew F. Rolle
- “Dixie” by the Metropolitan Mixed Chorus, 1916
- “Hino da Independência“